Certain myths seem to be interpretations of what people, in ancient times, believed what had happened, according to their own understanding and frame of reference. Many ancient texts from the whole world described beings who came from the heavens. In the Mesopotamiam and Greek mythology they were called gods, in the Tanakh, Bible and Qu'ran they were called angels, and from ancient Persia (today's Iran) and ancient India there are similar stories of supernatural beings who waged war with each other - called the Asuras/Ahuras and the Devas/Daevas - who would exist on a higher plane of reality. And many well known ancient tribal legends from Central and South America are about star beings who came from the heavens to assist humanity.
In modern times, there exists the belief that "heaven" is the place were one goes after death, but the word "heaven" originally referred specifically to the sky and all that is above, including space and the "heavenly bodies", which includes the planets and the stars. Thus, the Sumerian and Akkadian words for "heaven" could be replaced with "above", and in this sense this would mean that these beings came from the skies, or beyond: from outer space.
The theory that the "gods" from ancient mythology were possibly beings of extraterrestrial origin was popularized with the books of Italian journalist and writer Peter Kolosimo (most notably: "Non e terrestre" (1968), translated to English as: "Not of this World"), and the slightly later Swiss author Erich von Däniken with his book: "Chariots of the Gods? (1968)". This point of view was later dubbed as the so-called "Ancient Astronaut Theory".
Born in Russia and grown up
in Palestine, American writer Zecharia Sitchin
(1920-2010) studied old and new Hebrew, and all sorts of Semitic and
European languages, and had great knowledge of the Old Testament.
Sitchin's work is about his own translation and re-interpretation of
the ancient Sumerian clay tablets and seems to fuel some more
credibility to the "Ancient Astronaut Theory". His hypotheses are not
widely accepted by scientists and academics, who often dismiss his work
as pseudo-science and pseudo-history.
At the time Sitchin wrote his first book: "The 12th Planet" (1976), only specialists could read the Sumerian writings. Using his knowledge of ancient texts, he researched and re-translated the ancient Sumerian writings according to his own interpretations which happened to differ at certain points from the previous translations of others.
Because of his books he received a lot of controversy from the scientific world. He is often brought into discredit because of certain incorrect translations and incorrect astronomical and scientific information. But let us consider that when Sitchin wrote his first book about this topic, there was not as much knowledge of Sumerian language as we have today, by a long shot, and thus in many cases he had to rely on his own speculation.
Based on certain ancient depictions and artefacts, Sitchin also
assumed that the Anunnaki used space rockets in the ancient past. On
inspection, it often became clear that these just depicted mountains
(drawn in a
simplistic way), obelisks or menhirs. This kind of
evidence was often not
very convincing and decisive.
His later book: "The Lost Book of Enki" was also criticized because Sitchin would have formed many different myths and legends into one fitting story. Many scholars are convinced these stories are not related to each other, but one cannot deny that it is surely remarkable that there are many similarities between the myths of different ancient civilizations. For example, many civilizations have a myth of a great flood.
He also pointed out numerous similarities between certain gods from different ancient civilizations, including the Mesopotamian (Sumerian/Akkadian/Babylonian), Egyptian, Greek/Roman and Norse/German civilizations, that raised the suggestion that they possibly could have been the very same deities, although differently named based on the language of the civilization.
Besides some criticism, Sitchin's translation substantially doesn't differ that much from other translations such as from the famed Assyriologist Samuel Noach Kramer (1897-1990), but with the distinct difference however that these gods weren't just being regarded as "divine" beings, but as beings which actually came from another planet, and that they were directly related to those that were called the "sons of God" in the book of Genesis from the Bible.
According to Sitchin's translations, the Sumerian clay tablets are about the long and detailed story of technologically advanced humanoid beings from another planet outside our solar system. Explorers of this far away planet would have come to Earth some hundreds of thousands of years ago (about 444,000 BC) with the purpose to mine gold to save the atmosphere of their dying home planet. In ancient texts they were referred to as the "Anunnaki" (also transcribed as: Anunna, Anunnaku, Ananaki and other variations).
Sitchin believed that their home planet was called "Nibiru" and that this planet would be another, undiscovered planet
from outside our solar system. According to Sitchin's assumptions, this planet followed its own elliptic path of 26,000
years, in which it would eventually cross our own solar system, causing all kinds of havoc for Earth and the other planets because of its huge mass.
However, Sitchin probably made a mistake here, as a cycle of 26,000 years is, in spiritual circles, considered a returning "natural"
cycle where every time great changes happen upon the face of the Earth, and this is probably what the clay tablets
actually implied. Another point is that it would be impossible for a planet to have and keep its own separate elliptic path
if it would enter our solar system, and it would also not be possible to leave it again later.
In the book: "Forgotten Genesis (Transylvanian Series Book 6) (2019)", Radu Cinamar, author and alleged member of Romania's secretive “Department Zero”, stated that Nibiru (NEIBERÁU) was not a planet, but was actually the name of the huge, spherical cosmic space ship of the extraterrestrial visitors. (This actually makes more sense, as a spaceship should be able to both enter and leave our solar system, whereas a planet could not.) During a time when there was a terrible war in space, they came to Earth because they needed materials, gold especially, to repair damaged parts of the Neiberáu mother ship.
Although surely not all what Zecharia Sitchin assumed appeared to be correct in the light of more recently begotten insights, it does not discredit the common thread that is running through his whole theory; Namely, that in the ancient past there had been humanoid extraterrestrials from another planet that came to Earth, who were later seen and revered as gods and rulers. Despite not being widely accepted by scientists and academics, Zecharia Sitchin's theory still remains today's most scientifically proven one regarding the "Ancient Astronaut Theory".
Print of cylinder seal VA 243. According to Zecharia Sitchin the dots above-left appear to be the planets
of our solar system with the inclusion of the moon, the sun (in the centre) and one extra planet: Nibiru.
"Giving rise to your speculation in this time of the entry of such from other spheres or Gods from space and such, you see. And such descriptions as are popularized in this time, while as somewhat primitive in understanding or description, not so far [from the truth?] from that you'd see."